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ICS Computer Science Notes

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Ist Year Chapter Number 1

Ist Year 

Computer Science

Chapter Number 1 

 What is computer?
Ans. Computer is an electronic device. Operating under the control of instructions, it can accepts
data as in input, processes the data according to predefined rules, produces results, and stores the
results for future use.
What is data processing?
Ans. Converting raw form of data into meaningful information is called data processing. Computer
machines are used as data processor.
What is application software?
Ans. The software which is used to solve different problems of the user is called application
software. They are specially developed to perform a specific task.
What is a plotter?
Ans. Plotters are the printers which are used to output the high quality graphics and normally are
used in printing of drawings, maps, circuit diagrams. The engineering fields like civil, mechanical and
electronics are using these printers very efficiently. There are two types of plotters i.e. flatbed
plotter and drum plotters.
What is meant by input devices?
Ans. The parts of computer which are used to feed data into computer system are known as input
devices. Keyboard, Mouse, Scanner and Mic are the input devices.
What is computer?
Ans. Computer is an electronic device. Operating under the control of instructions, it can accepts
data as in input, processes the data according to predefined rules, produces results, and stores the
results for future use.
What do you mean by QWERTY?
Ans. QWERTY is a standard type of keyboard which is used with PC computer and laptops. This
keyboard has 103 key in standard and the first six keys of top row of this keyboard is QWERTY So it is
called QWARTY keyboard.
What are different types of printers?
Ans. There are two major types of printer.
1. Impact printer
2. Non-impact printer
Write the name of all output devices?
Ans. The peripheral devices which are used to return the output are called output devices. Printer,
plotters, projectors, monitors screen and speakers are commonly used out put devices.
 What is touch pad or track pad?
Ans. In laptops and notebooks a little pad is placed under the keypad, this pad is pressure sensitive
with touch technology. When user presses figure on the surface of pad, the pointer on the screen
What is system software?
Ans. The software which is specially designed to control the system, hardware and to manage the
application software is called system software. Operating system, utility software, language
translators and device drivers are the examples of system software.
 Define the term hardware?
Ans. All the physical parts of computer are called hardware. These are manufactured by physical
materials. They have some weight, occupy some space and can be touched.
 What is computer animation?
Ans. Animation is appearance of series of text, images and other drawing objects which are
arranged in a sequence and create motion and the objects look like moving object.
 What is operating system?
Ans. An operating system is a set of programs that work together to coordinate all the activities
among computer hardware resources. Most operating systems perform similar functions that
include starting and shutting down a computer, providing a user interface, managing programs,
managing memory, coordinating tasks, configuring devices and establishing an Internet connection.
What is data?
Ans. Data is raw, unorganized facts that need to be processed. Data can be something simple and
seemingly random and useless until it is organized. In statistics we define data as “Data is the
collection of raw facts and figures about any object”.
Define in information technology?
Ans. Information technology is a technology that is involved in processing data and distribution of
information using networks. This technology is concerned with development, maintenance and use
of computer systems, software and networks.
What are non-impact printers?
Ans. A non-impact printer uses the printing technique other than striking or punching the paper.
Some of the non-impact printers spray ink, while others use heat or pressure to create images.

List out the different components of SDLC?
Ans. System Development Life Cycle is a process of developing system through a multi-step process
from investigation of initial requirements through analysis, design, implementation and
stages of SDLC
Stages of SDLC

Describe the stages of SDLC?
Ans. 1. Preliminary Investigation
2. Feasibility study
3. System analysis
4. System designing
5. Development of software
6. System testing
7. Implementation
8. Maintenance

What is biometrics input?
Ans. These devices are used to input the physical or behavioral characteristics of a person in the
computer. These devices can scan fingerprints, hand geometry, facial features, voice, signatures,
digital camera
Digital camera
and eye patterns.

What is digital camera?
Ans. The webcam or digital camera is a camera device which enable the user to record videos or still
pictures in the computer. This device is broadly used for video communication.

How is hardware different from software?
Ans. The hardware is all the physical parts of the computer and software are the non-physical parts,
so hardware exits physically but software does not exists physically. Hardware are made of physical
materials but software are made of instructions.

                                                                                        State the purpose of ATM?
purpose of ATM
Purpose of ATM
Ans. The ATM is abbreviation of Automated Teller Machine, it works like a cashier in a bank and it is
operated through an ATM card. ATM card is use to get cash, transfer funds, get balance statement
and get prepaid cards for mobile phones.

Differentiate between data and information?
Ans. Data is a collection of raw facts and figures about an object and when data is processed it
becomes information. Data is normally huge in volume but information is less in volume. Data is
unorganized and information is organized form of data.
 Define pointing devices?
Ans. A pointer represents a small symbol on the screen. It usually appears on the screen on
Graphical User Interface environment. A pointing device is an input device. It is used to control the
movement of the pointer or cursor on the screen.
 What is the use of output devices?
Ans. The parts of computer used to return the output after processing are called output devices.
Monitor, printers, projectors and speakers are the output devices. These devices show or print the
result after processing.
 Describe microphone?
Ans. We can feed our voice in the computer with the help of microphone. This device is widely used
in voice communication and voice chat. We also can record our voice with the help of this devices.
 Give some examples of operating system?
Ans. Operating system is an system software, MS-Windows, Dos, Unix and Linux are the examples of
Operating system.
Differentiate between bit and byte?
Ans. BIT is basic unit of computer memory and is abbreviation of Binary Digit and byte is collection
of bits. One Byte consists of 8 bits.
 Describe print queue?
Ans. Print queue is the list of printing jobs that are stored in RAM and waiting for printing. It
maintains the most current status of all active and pending print jobs.
 What is display screen? Type any two types of display screens?
Ans. Display screen is an output device used to show the output from computer. Monitor &LCD are
most popularly used display screens.
 How is printer resolutions measured?
Ans. The resolution of a printer is measure in DPI (dot per inch) mean how much dots a printer print
in one inch. The magnetized ink is very much in exercise to print special words on sensitive

Chapter No 2

 What is gateway?
Ans. Gateway is referred to a node on a network that serves as an entrance to another network. In enterprises, the gateway is the computer that routes the traffic from a workstation to the outside networks that is serving the web pages. In homes, the gateway is the ISP that connects the user to the Internet.

What is Internet?        
Ans. It is the network of networks around the world. It is made up of thousands of smaller, national, regional, governmental, academic and commercial networks. The Internet is a worldwide system of interconnected computer networks to reach billions of users.
What is FTP?
Ans. FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol and is a part of the TCP/IP protocol suite. This is the protocol, or set of rules which enable files to be transferred from one computer to another.
What is www?
Ans. World Wide Web is service of Internet. It is a system of resources that enable computer users to view and interact with a variety of electronic documents, including magazine archives, public and university-library resources, current world and business news, and software programs.

Bus Topology
Bus Topology
What is Bus Topology?
Ans. Bus topology uses a common backbone to connect all the network devices in a network in a linear shape. a single cable functions as the shared communication medium for all the devices attached with this cable with an interface connector.
What is group ware?
Ans.  A software which enable to work in work group computing. This network is used to perform activities on a network.
What is the purpose of network layer?
Ans. This is the third layer of OSI model, The principal task of this layer is to establish, maintain and terminate commotions to support the transfer of information between end system via one, or more intermediate communication networks.
What is star topology?

Ans. In the computer networking world the most commonly used topology in LAN is the star topology. Star topologies can be implemented in homes, offices or even in a building. All the computers in the star topologies are connected to central devices like hub, switch or router.
What is router?
Ans. A router can be considered to be a large directory of networks. Rather than concerning itself about which PC is where, a routers job is to find out where different networks are. It then sends the traffic via the best path, be it the fastest, most reliable or shortest.
MAN Stands for What?
Ans. MAN stands for Metropolitan Area Network.
What is Clint/server network model?
Ans. A network architecture in which each computer or process on the network is either a client or a server. Servers are powerful computers or processes dedicated to managing disk drives, Printers, or network traffic. Clients are PC or workstations on which users run applications.
Describe dedicated carver?
Ans. A computer in a network which is used to server a specific type of services to the networks. File server, Print server are the examples of dedicated servers.
Define bridge?
Ans. A data-link bridge is a device that connects two similar networks or divides one network into two. It takes frames from one network and puts them on the other, and vice versa. As it does this, it regenerates the signal strength of the frames, allowing data to travel further.
What do you know about Gopher?
Ans. Gopher is a protocol designed to search, retrieve and display documents from remote sites on the internet. In addition to document display, document retrieval, it is possible to initiate on-line commotions with other systems via Gopher.
Uses of LAN
Uses Of LAN
State some uses of LAN?
Ans. A computer network contained in a small room, normally in a room or in a building is known as Local Area Networks.LAN is used for computer labs in schools and colleges, small offices and home bas networks.
Define the term "Extra-net"?
Ans. Extra-net are networks links that use Internet technologies to interconnect the intranet of a business with the intra net of its customers, suppliers, or other business partners.

What is ring topology?
Ans. In -ring Network, every computer or device have two adjacent neighbors for communication. In a ring network, all the communication messages travel in the same direction whether clockwise or anti Clockwise.
State the purpose of transport of layer.
Ans. This layer provides a reliable end-to-end service for the transfer of messages irrespective of the under lying networks. To fulfill this role, the transport layer selects a suitable communication network which provides the required quality of service
Differentiate between bit and byte?
Ans. Bit is Binary digit and smallest unit of computer memory and byte is a group of 8 bits. Bit is smaller unit and byte is bigger unit.
List seven layer of OSL Model?
Ans. Physical layer
           Data layer                                                                              Network layer
           Transport layer                                                                   Session layer
           Presentation layer                                                             Application layer
Define the term network topology?
Ans. In computer networking "topology" refers to the layout or design of the connected devices in a network. Network Topologies can be physical or logical. Physical Topology means the physical design of a network including the devices, location and cable installations.
Define dedicated server?
Ans. Dedicated server is network server which performs a specific task on a network.
Define the term client?
Ans. Client is PCs or workstations on which users run applications. Clients rely on servers for resources, Such as files, devices and even prosing power.
State the purpose of data link layer?
Ans. This layer provides reliable transmission of a packet by using the services of the physical layer which transmits bits over the medium in an unreliable fashion.

Chapter No 3:

 What is meant by half duplex mode?
Ans. In half –duplex mode, each station can both transmit and receive, but not at the same time .When one device is sending, the other can only receive , and vice versa. The half-duplex mode is like a one –lane road with traffic allowed in both directions.
What is meant by parallel transmission?
Ans. Computer produce and consume data in groups of bits much as we conceive of and use spoken language in the form of words rather than letters. By grouping , we can send data n bits at a time instead of 1. This is called parallel transmission.
What is fiber optics
What is fiber optics?
3. What is fiber optics?
Ans. A fiber optics cable is a thin strand of glass that transmits beams of light rather than electric frequencies. When one end of the thread is exposed to light, the thread carries the light all the way to the other end, bending around corners with only a minute loss of energy along the way.
What is communication Satellite?
Ans. A communication satellite is a space station that receives microwave signals from earth microwave station. The earth based stations often are microwave stations.

      What is coaxial cable?
What is coaxial cable?
Ans. Coaxial cable sometimes called coax is widely used for cable TV and is used in some net-works.
Write about modem?
Ans. Modem, as a shortened form of Modulator /Demodulator, allows the computer to convert data in useful information. When it receives an analog data through a connection, it has to convert it in digital data to be usable by the computer. Likewise it reverses the action when it has to send data.
What is receiver?
Ans. A device that is used for receiving messages is called receiver. It is also known as sink. The receiver can be a computer, telephone set, printer, or a fax machine etc.
 What is decoder?
Ans. The decoder is an electronic device. It receives data from transmission medium. It converts in coded signals into digital form.
  Name some bounded media?
Ans. Guided media is also known as bounded media, coaxial cable, twisted pair cables and fiber optic cables is the example of bounded media, or guided media.
 What are digital signals?
Ans. Digital signals is a sequence of voltage represented in binary form. The digital signals are in the form of electrical pulses of ON and OFF. These signals are in discrete form. Digital signals are faster and efficient.
 Describe asynchronous data transmission?
Ans.  Asynchronous data transmission is so named because the timing of a signal is unimportant. Instead, information is received and translated by agreed upon patterns. As long as those patterns are followed, the receiving device can retrieve the information without regard to the rhythm in which it is sent.
  What do you know about full duplex mode of data communication?
Ans. In full-duplex mode, both citations can transmit and receive simultaneously.  The full-duplex mode is like a two way street with traffic flowing in both directions at the same time.
 Define analog signal?
Ans. Analog signal is a continuous electrical signal in the form of wave. The wave is known as carrier wave. Telephone line is most commonly used media for analog signals.
What is Unicode?
Ans. Unicode stands for Universal code. It is a 16-bit code. It can represent 65536 characters or symbols. It is developed by following the ASCII coding scheme. The first 265 codes in Unicode are identical to the 256 codes used by ASCII system.
Write about external modem?
Ans. An External modem can be used to the same purpose and in the same conditions as internal computer modem. However external modem is a small box that uses other kind of interfaces to be connected to the computer.
  What is meant by encoding of data?
Ans. A computer accepts and processes data in binary form. Therefore, all data , numeric or non-numeric, must be converted into binary form before storing inside the computer. The process of conversion data into binary form is called encoding of data.
  Define the term “Modulation”.
Ans. IEEE defines modulation as “a processes where by certain characteristics of a wave, often called the carrier, are varied or selected in accordance with a modulation function.
  Compare simplex and half duplex mode?
Ans. In simplex mode data is transmitted only in one way direction but in half duplex mode data can be transmitted in both directions. Simplex mode is faster than half duplex mode.
 What is serial data transmission?
Ans. In serial transmission one bit follows another, so we need only one communication channel rather than to transmit data between two communicating devices.
List different elements of data communication?
Ans. The basics component or elements of data communication system are as follows:
Medium or Communication Channel
Encoder and Decoder
 Define the term encoder and decoder?
Ans. The encoder is an electronic device. It receives data from sender in the form of digital signals. It converts digital signals into a form that can be transmitted through transmission medium. The decoder is an electronic device. It receives data from transmission medium. It converts encoded signals into digital form.
 What do you know about broadband?
Ans. Broadband is high-speed Internet connection provided through cable, DSL, fiber, radio signals, or satellite.
Define Data Communication?
Ans. The process of transferring data from one location to another or form one computer to another is called data communication. In this process, data is transmitted from one location to another by using transmission media.
What is signal?
Ans. Signal is an electromagnetic or light wave that represents data. Signals are used to transfer data from one device to another through a communication medium.
List three features of modem?
Ans. Modem is a communication device, which is used to send and receive data from one computer to another computer using telephone line. The modem is used to convert digital signal into analog signal and vice versa.
 How data is represented in computer system?
Ans. Data is represented in the form of binary digits or in the form of 0,1.

Chapter No 4:

What is meant by online banking?
Ans. The term online banking means to perform all the banking operations on internet. Online banking enables us to transfer funds, pay, our utility bills and fees through internet.
What is meant by video conference?
Ans. The term video conference means to have a meeting on internet. In this way people on different locations can communicate with each others as they are present in one room.
What is online education?
Ans. Online education is a process of getting distance learning education with the help of internet. This is very useful especially for the students who cannot go to schools/colleges for traditional classes.
What is robot
What is robot?
What is robot?
Ans. A robot is a machine that gathers information about its environment and uses that information to follow instructions to do work.
What is ATM?
Ans. ATM is abbreviation of Automated Teller Machine, a machine at a bank branch or any other location which enables a customer to perform basic banking activities even when the bank is closed.
How office support system helps in office automation?
Ans. Our Office Systems Support program prepares a user for an administrative career in an office setting. A user will use up-to-date technology, communication, and administrative support skills that will make him a valuable asset in any office environment.
How computers are useful in weather forecasting?
Ans. Computer based weather forecasting are useful in collection of data from weather stations, airports, satellites, different sensitive deices all around the world. Computer depends on building a model of hot, cold air, dry and humid air interaction.
What do you know about computer aided learning (CAL)?
Ans. Computer Aided Learning could be described as the use of information technology to assist in the teaching and enhance learning process. It is also reducing the administrative load associated with teaching and research.
Explain the concept on E-commerce?
Ans. The process of buying and selling of product& services by businesses and consumers through an electronic medium, without using any paper documents is called E-commerce.
How computers can be used in marketing?
Ans. Much on marketing has gone online. Social media marketing, website development, blogging, advertising, e-newsletters have all become swift means of marketing in an increasingly globalized society.
Enlist some uses of computer at home?
Ans. Home budget
         Computer Games
        Working from Home
How computers can be used for airline system?
Ans. Passenger Services
         Airport Services
         Air Traffic
         Plane Mechanics
Describe some features of computer?
Ans. Speed                          Storage
         Accuracy                     Diligence
         Versatility                   No.IQ
Define monitoring system in hospitals?
Ans. It is a system used in hospitals, to monitor the vital signs of a patient, in emergency and operations theaters. It helps the doctors and surgeons to decide about the medicines or preliminary measurements about the health of a patient.
Differentiate between CAD&CAM?
Ans. CAD is used to develop the model or design of specific product and CAM technology is used in production or manufacturing of such products.


(Computer Architecture)

What is an object code?
Ans. The machine language version that results from compiling the High Level Languages code is called the object code or object program. The compiler stores the object code on storage media for execution later.
What is language translator or language processor?
Ans. A language processor is a special type of computer software that has the capacity of translator the source code or program code into machine codes. The following are different types of language processors are:
 What is EPROM?
Ans. EPROM stands for Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. Once data is stored on ROM or EPROM, it cannot be modified. However, there is another type of memory chips called EPROM.
 What is assembler?
Ans. An assembler translates from a low level language to binary machine code. The assembler produces one machine instruction for each source instruction. The assemblers are generally used in assembling the source code or program code written in assembly language.
  What is cache memory?
Ans. Main memory is a computer device with the slowest access rate. If the CPU needs a data item, a request is sent to main memory via a memory bus. The main memory then searches for the data item and sends it back to the CPU.
 What is main memory?
Ans. Main memory is a computer device with the slowest access rate. If the CPU needs a data item, a request is sent to the main memory via a memory bus. The main memory then searches for the data item and sends it back to the CPU. Lot of time is wasted in this entire cycle. So to avoid this delay a cache memory is built-in in the CPU to temporarily store the frequently used instructions and data so that CPU should not approach RAM for data every time and hence lot of time will be saved. The use of Cache Memory is vital to enhance the speed of processor.    
 What is DRAM?
Ans. DRAM chips must be recharged or refreshed constantly again and again. When we on the computer the DRAM chip gets charged, and discharged as we use it.
  What is assembly language?
Ans. With an assembly language, the second generation of programming languages also called low level language: a programmer writes instructions using symbolic instruction codes.
What is ALU?
Ans. The data bus comments the microprocessor with other devices mapped on to the system. This is often described pictorially using a memory map. Unlike the address bus, the data bus is two-way .The data bus is not limited to transferring data: it is also used to transfer program instructions.
What is ROM-imag
What is ROM
What is ROM?
Ans. ROM stands for Read Only Memory. Once data is stored on ROM it cannot be modified. However, there is another type of memory chips called ROM.
What is data bus?
Ans. The data bus connects the microprocessor with other devices mapped onto the system. This is often described pictorially using a memory map.
What are CPU registers?
Ans. A processor contains small but very fast computer memory used to speed the execution of computer programs that are called registers.
What are the activate of control unit?
Ans. The control unit is the component of the processor that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer. The control unit has a role much like a traffic cop: it interprets each instruction issued by a program and then initiates the appropriate action to carry out the instruction. Types of internal components that control unit direct include the arithmetic/logic unit, registers, and buses. 
Differentiate between SRAM and DRAM?
Ans. DRAM is based on technology which needs to be recharged after some specific time again and again so it is slow but SRAM does not recharge during execution of instruction so it is fast.
What is instruction set?
Ans. A single machine cycle instruction may be made up of a substantial number of sub instructions each of which must take at least one clock cycle. Each type of central processing unit is designed to understand a specific group of instructions called instruction set.
Define motherboard?
Ans. Motherboard is hardware component all the hardware devices are connect to this board and all the data travels from one device to another with the help of this device.
 What are control transfer instructions?
Ans. The instructions that are used to transfer the execution control from one part of the program to another during program execution are called control transfer instructions. These instructions may be used to execute a set of instruction repeated for a number of times.
Why does DRAM use more power?
Ans. DRAM has to recharge again and again during execution of instructions so it use more power than SRAM. This activity of recharging makes it slower.
What is bus interconnection?
Ans. Data in the form of electric on-off signals (bits) travel from RAM to CPU,CPU to RAM and other one device to another. For transmission of data in different components there are the pathways which are called buses.
Why does machine language program execute faster?
Ans. The programs in the machine language execute faster because computer under stand these codes and there is no need to translate them.
Why ROM is called non-volatile memory?
Ans. ROM is called a nonvolatile memory because the data stored in ROM is not lost/erased when the computer power off.
Write the name of different system buses?
Ans. Data bus                                    Control bus                                                      Address bus.


( Security Copyright and Law)

What is meant by Antivirus?
Ans. An antivirus program protects a computer against viruses by identifying and removing any computer viruses found in memory, on storage media, or on incoming files. Most antivirus programs also protect against worms and Trojan horses. When you purchase a new computer, it often includes antivirus software.
What is the purpose of password?
Ans. The purpose of the password is to maintain the security if any system by restricting user. Passwords are used also for authentication, validation, and verification in computer systems.
 What do you know about copyright act?
Ans. This is a list of copyright Acts, which are laws enacting the copyright. It provides security to creators to misuse their creations.
What is boot sector virus?
Ans. Boot sector virus resides in the boot sector of the hard disk and damages the most important files that are needed by the operation system to boot.
What is logic bomb
What is logic bomb?
 What is logic bomb?
Ans. They are not considered as viruses because they do not replicate. They are not even programs in their own right but rather camouflaged segments of other programs. Their objective is to destroy data on the computer once certain conditions have been met. Logic bombs go undetected until launched, and the results can be destructive.
 What is Trojan horse?
Ans. Trojan horse is a virus program that hides itself with common computer files like zip file. Whenever the infected files are opened the virus activates.
What are the causes of virus?
Ans. The major causes of virus are following:
         Using external media like CDs, DVDs, USB, and Floppy disk.
         Opening virus infected email.
         Using infected websites
What is data security?
Ans. Data security provides the measures and means to protect personal and organizational data. It is the practice of keeping data protected from corruption and unauthorized access.
How virus is activated?
Ans. Virus is activated according to conditions which are written in the virus program. Some viruses automatically activated when they are copied into a system or some wait for an event to be activated.
 What is Redlof?
Ans. Redlof is a polymorphic virus that embeds itself without any attachment to every e-mail sent from the infected system.
 Define pirated software?
Ans. The software which is used without giving license or permission by the developer is called pirated software.
List different types of viruses?
Ans. Following is the list of viruses.
         Boot Virus
         Resident Virus
         Polymorphic Virus
         Overwrite Virus/ Stealth virus
         Macro Virus
         File Infects
         Companion Viruse
         FAT Virus


 (Window Operating System)

 What is meant by GUI?
Ans. Graphical User Interface most users to day work with a graphical user interface. With a graphical user interface, you interact with menus and visual images such as buttons and other graphical objects to issue commands.
Define desktop?
Define desktop?
 Define desktop?
Ans. Desktop is main area of MS-Windows XP; it shows the back ground image and important icons like My Computer, My Documents, etc.
What is the use of Control Panel?
Ans. Windows XP makes the easier than ever with the Control Panel. The Control Panel features a number of tools that will help user control how Windows XP features look and etc.
 What is the purpose of Recycle Bin?
Ans. One of the main icons found on desktop is the Recycle Bin icon. When a user deletes a file, Windows XP places that file into the Recycle Bin so that it may be retrieved at a later time.
 What is Windows Explorer?
Ans. Windows Explorer is a built-in tool that allows user to browse, view, copy and delete files. Windows Explorer is automatically installed when user install MS Windows on his computer.
What are the different Operating systems?
Ans. On the basis of the interface there are two types of Operating System:
               Command Line Interface Operating System
               GUI Operating System
 List some activities of Control Panel?
Ans. The control panel is a section in Microsoft windows that enables a user to modify the computer’s settings. Changing the mouse settings, display settings, date and time, sound settings, and key board settings are just a few of the examples of what can be modified in the Control Panel.
 List different objects of Windows Operating System?
Ans. Followings are some important objects of MS Windows XP.
    A Window                                                      Start Button and Start Menu
    Icons                                                               Task Bar
    My Computer                                                My Documents
                                  Control Panel
What is meant by primary partition?
Ans. A primary partition is in which on Operating System can be installed. One MBR hard disk may contain a maximum of 4 primary partitions. An active partition is based on primary partition. Any one of the 4 primary partitions can be set as active partition.
 Why computer needs an Operation System?
Ans. The operating system has two primary functions. First it manages the computer’s resources, the computer’s hardware and any external devices. For example, the operating system controls the CPU, accesses RAM, execute programs. Second, the operating system contains instructions for running application software.
Define event?
Ans. Event is an activity that is performed by an input device. For example mouse events are click, right click and double click, key board events are key-up and key down.
Define Multitasking?
Ans. In multitasking, the operating system allows more than one task or program to be executed at a time in a single-user computer.
What is File Management?
Ans. Managing file on MS-Windows is called file management. We can copy move, rename and delete files with the help of file management option of MS-Windows.
What is primary and extended partition?
 Ans. A primary partition is in which on Operating System can be installed. One MBR hard disk may contain a maximum of 4 primary partitions. An active partition is based on primary partition. Any one of the 4 primary partitions can be set as active partition.
Define some uses of clipboard?
Ans. Clip board is used to store the data which user want to copy or move from one location to another. User use copy command to copy selected data or objects to clipboard and use paste command to copy or move objects on destination.


(Word Processing)

 What is meant by word processing?
Ans. Word processing is step by step procedure to create, edit and format documents in computer system. In words processing we can process text, images, graphics, tables, sounds and charts.
What are header and footer?
Ans. This option is used to display text or images on top or bottom of every page of the document. Header portion is top portion and footer portion is bottom portion.
What is paragraph formatting?
Ans. Paragraph formatting means to change the formatting of the whole paragraph. We can change the line spacing, indentation and paragraph spacing.
 Explain about margins?
Ans. A margin is a blank space separating text or other elements of the document from the edge of the paper, the margins are commonly adjusted through the page setup.
Why fonts are used?
Ans. A font is the combination of typeface and other qualities, such as size, pitch, and spacing. Fonts are used to change size, style and face of the text in the document. The fonts are used to make attractive documents.
What is undo command?
Ans. This command is used to reverse the last action performed by the user. CTRL+Z are the shortcut key for undo command. The Undo command doesn’t work when there’s nothing to undo, or if something simply cannot be undone.
What do you meant by indent?
Ans. This is paragraph formatting settings, it make the paragraph spacing or distance from left, or right side margin of the document.
What is text editor?
Ans. Text editor is application software, which is used to type and edit text. Notepad is most popular text editor software.
What is mail merge?
Ans. This feature is used to generate multiple copies of same documents for different recipients. For example a class teacher wants to print the result card of the students. Here the specimen of the result card will be same but the data of each student will be changed. So Mail merge can be used to generate such documents.
 List some uses of word processor?
Ans. Word processor is used to type, edit, format and print the documents. We can use word processor to type letters, application, develop brochures, newsletters, compose a book and variety of tasks.
Explain Undo and Redo command?
Ans. Undo command is used to move selected text, graphics or other objects to clipboards, while copy command create duplicate of the selected object to clipboard.
Distinguish between save and save as command?
Ans. Save command is used to save the opened document, while save as command is used to save duplicate copy of opened document.
Define Title Bar?
Define Title Bar?
Define Title Bar?
Ans. The title bar shows the name of the opened document on screen. When a new document is started, word gives it a generic name like “Document 1”
What is clipboard?
Ans. Clipboard is a powerful feature of application software to store data temporarily. If user wishes to move selected data from one location of the document to other or wants to create duplicate of the data, then clipboard is used.
Define Macros?
Ans. Macro is shortcut for series of actions to perform the specific tasks repeatedly. We can record the macros and then can play them to repeat these actions again and again.
Write shortcut key to print a document?
Ans. CTRL+P is the shortcut key used for printing in MS-word as well as in other documents.


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LearningKiDunya: ICS Computer Science Notes
ICS Computer Science Notes
Ics Notes, computer notes, computer notes 2020, new notes computer, ics computer notes part one, ics important computer notes,
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